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Choose from below the two sections of guideHub: categorized resource lists over 100 helpful urban biodiversity resources, or comparisons of common biodiversity measurement and planning frameworks and indices.
List of Resources
Comparison of Frameworks and Indices

List of Resources
Public Engagement Resources

Visuals and Handouts
https://www.outdoorcardiff.com/wp-content/uploads/Variety-of-Life-on-earth-poster.pdf

Cardiff's series of posters from the UK explain the benefits of biodiversity through cartoons.Public education materials on Hedgerows from the UK.

Life in the Leaf Litter

Guide to invertebrates found in leaf litter in New York City (in French and Spanish).
A Seasonal Guide to New York City's Invertebrates


Comics Uniting Nations
Anna's Forest - a comic for children
(in English, French and Spanish)

Educator's Resources
Interpreting Biodiversity: A Manual for Environmental Educators in the Tropics
(in English, French and Spanish)

School of Ants
Citizen science driven study of ants in urban areas for schools or households across the USA.

Students Discover
Lesson plans for discovering biodiversity around the home for middle school students in the USA.

Your Wild Life
Citizen science on the biodiversity of microbes in the home and surrounding areas in the USA.

Infographics
Biodiversity: Conservation Starts at the Local Level
Green Machines: Case Studies of Cities Full of Life
Infographics by ICLEI Canada

Lost & Found
http://www.lostandfoundnature.com/about-l-f.html
Inspiring and true stories about saving species (in English, Spanish, French, Chinese and Portuguese).

#NatureforAll
https://natureforall.global/
Global movement to inspire people to love nature by the IUCN.

NatureParif
Animated short films (in French and English)
Ecological management: Let’s bring biodiversity to cities
Urbanism, architecture and biodiversity : when nature inspires cities and buildings

Gestion écologique : Accueillons la biodiversité en ville

Bâtiment et biodiversité. Et si l'on pensait les villes et les bâtiments comme des écosystèmes.


Public Engagement Feedback Forms Response Form
Feedback Response Form
Environmental Management Strategy feedback forms as used in Surrey, Canada.
Regulations and Policy Resources

Biodiversity Offsets
Provincial Guideline on Biodiversity Offsets in South Africa

Transferrable Development Rights
Transferrable Development Rights and Forest Protection: an exploratory analysis by Chomitz 2004.
The Theory and Practice of Transferring Development Rights: The Institutions for Contracting for Biodiversity by Swanson 1995.

Urban Ecology Policy Proposals
http://www.nyc.gov/html/gbee/downloads/pdf/urban_ecology.pdf
Proposed biodiversity legislation for New York City.

Urban Growth Management (Limiting Sprawl)
Urban Growth Management in New South Wales by Williams.

Urban Nature Infrastructure Survey and Policy
http://greenmap.org.il/content?lang=en&pageid=50
Jerusalem has completed the first citywide Urban Nature Infrastructure Survey that covers public and private land and identifies habitat for special designation in the land use zoning (policy in Hebrew).
Data Repositories

Atlas of Living Australia
http://www.ala.org.au/
Australia only.

Biodiversity Scotland
http://www.biodiversityscotland.gov.uk/duty/do-it/records/
Scotland only.

Biodiversity Data Sets for Ireland
http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie/DataSet
Ireland only.

Bird Count India
https://birdcount.in/
Bird data and birding events in India only.

Cettia Île-de-France
http://cettia-idf.fr/
Paris region on line nature data capture tool and database (French).

Christmas Bird Count
http://www.audubon.org/conservation/science/christmas-bird-count
Annual citizen science driven count of birds, ongoing for over a century; USA and Canada only.

eBird
http://ebird.org/
eBird is a citizen science data recording website by Cornell University that provides worldwide spatial bird abundance and distribution data for viewing or download.

Encyclopaedia of Life
http://www.eol.org/
Information and pictures of all species known to science.

Environmental Information System (ENVIS)
http://envis.nic.in/
Ecological and sustainability information for India only.

Falling Fruit
https://fallingfruit.org
Citizen science map and database of urban edibles for foraging or community agriculture worldwide.

Group on Earth Observations (GEO) BON
http://geobon.org/
global biodiversity observation network that links scientists to one another and to assessment tools such as remote sensing.

iNaturalist
https://www.inaturalist.org/
Citizen science and science data portal and mobile app with verification and download capabilities.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)
http://www.gbif.org/
Open-data research infrastructure on species occurance worldwide.
Spanish version

Map of Life
https://mol.org/
Global species distribution maps consolidated from WWF, IUCN, GBIF and others.

National Biodiversity Network of the UK
https://nbn.org.uk/
Collates and verifies spatial wildlife viewing records from citizen science in the UK.
Biological Records Centre

Natura 2000
http://www.datacommons.psu.edu/commonswizard/
Europe only.

Penn State Data Commons
http://www.datacommons.psu.edu/commonswizard/
USA only.

Project Noah
http://www.projectnoah.org
Citizen science database of plants, animals, and fungi sponsored by National Geographic.

Sauvages de ma Rue
http://sauvagesdemarue.mnhn.fr/
Urban plant observation program that uses a mobile app for citizen science. (in French)

South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI)
https://www.sanbi.org/information
Collected data sources on biodiversity for South Africa.

Sociedad Española de Ornitología (SEO) Bird Life
http://sauvagesdemarue.mnhn.fr/
Information on bird species in gardens in the cities of Spain (in Spanish).
Networking and Partnership Programs

Biophilic Cities Network
http://biophiliccities.org/
See more in the comparison of frameworks and indices below.

CEEWeb
http://www.ceeweb.org/

CoalitionWILD
https://coalitionwild.org/#page_id=block1

ICLEI LAB: Wetlands SA Programme
http://cbc.iclei.org/project/lab-wetlands-sa/

Wetland Strategy & Action Plan (WSAP) Guidelines

INTERACT-Bio
http://cbc.iclei.org/project/interact-bio/
ICLEI program supporting nine pilot cities implement biodiversity strategies in Brazil, India, and Tanzania.

LAB Pioneer Programme
http://cbc.iclei.org/programmes/lab/
See more in the comparison of frameworks and indices below.

Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/man-and-biosphere-programme/
by UNESCO

Urban Bird Treaty
https://www.fws.gov/birds/grants/urban-bird-treaty.php
A program by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service that brings together city partners to conserve migratory birds through habitat conservation, hazard reductions, citizen science, and outreach and education in urban and suburban areas.

Urban Protected Areas
http://www.iucn-urban.org/

Urban Protected Areas - Profiles and best practice guidelines

The Urban Imperative: Urban Outreach Strategies for Protected Area Agencies


Urban Protected Areas Network
http://www.upa-network.org/
by the Libertas Institute in Paris.

WILD Cities
http://wildcities.org/
by the WILD Foundation in the USA.
Blogs

Espace pour la vie
French blog.

Humans and Nature
http://www.humansandnature.org/
Blogs and discussions by contributors from around the world on resilience and nature.

Metropolitan Field Guide
http://www.metrofieldguide.com/
Blog by Kelly Brenner on urban wildlife based out of Seattle.

Natusfera
http://natusferablog.creaf.cat/tag/biodiversidad-urbana/
Blog on urban nature (in Spanish).

Our Urban Jungle
https://oururbanjungle.wordpress.com/
Blog on adventures in urban wildlife and sustainability by Megan Draheim from the USA.

Our Urban Wild
https://oururbanwilderness.wordpress.com/
Tales of wildlife on the urban edge by Wilf Nussey and Liz Hardman from South Africa.

The Nature of Cities
https://www.thenatureofcities.com/
Blog written by researchers and practitioners of urban biodiversity from around the world.

Urban Beasts
http://www.ozy.com/topic/urban-beasts
by Nick Dall at OZY

Your Wild Life
http://yourwildlife.org/blog/
Weekly blog on citizen science and other discoveries from the Rob Dunn Lab at North Carolina State University.
Conferences

Cities Alive
https://citiesalive.org/
Conference on green roofs and walls around September.

EcoCity World Summit (IECS)
hhttps://ecocitybuilders.org/ecocity-world-summit/
Held every two years; 2019 to be hosted by BCIT in Vancouver, Canada 7-11 OCtober 2019.

European Conference on Biodiversity and Climate Change (ECBCC)
https://www.ecbcc2017.com/
Held biannually. 2019 date and location not yet announced.

Global Biodiversity Summit of Cities (ICCLED)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/09/paris/ICCLED
Parallel to the CBD COP in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, 10 - 22 November 2018.

International Conference on City Landscape and Ecological Design (ICCLED)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/09/paris/ICCLED
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Paris 20-21 September 2018.

International Conference on Ecological Design for City Landscape (ICEDCL)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/09/singapore/ICEDCL
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Singapore 10-11 September 2018.

International Conference on Ecological Design of Urban Landscapes (ICEDUL)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/08/prague/ICEDUL
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Prague 13-14 August 2018.

International Conference on Ecological Urbanism (ICEU)
https://www.waset.org/conference/2017/10/dubai/ICUBD
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Istanbul 6-7 September 2018.

International Conference on Ecological Urbanism and Applications (ICEUA)
https://www.waset.org/conference/2017/10/dubai/ICUBD
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Tokyo 10-11 September 2018.

International Conference on Ecological Urbanism and Design (ICEUD)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/09/rome/ICEUD
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Rome 17-18 September 2018.

International Conference on Ecological Urbanism and Sustainability (ICEUS)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/09/prague/ICEUS
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Prague 3-4 September 2018.

International Conference on Garden City Movement (ICGCM)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/09/zurich/ICGCM
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Zurich 13-14 September 2018.

International Conference on Natural and Built Ecological Systems in Urban Environment (ICNBESUE)
https://waset.org/conference/2018/08/prague/ICNBESUE
by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), in Prague 13-14 August 2018.

International Urban Wildlife Conference (IUWC)
https://www.facebook.com/iuwc2019/
Held in Portland, Oregon 2-5 June 2019

International Network for Urban Biodiversity and Design Conference (URBIO)
http://www.urbio2018.co.za/
2018 theme is Urban Biodiversity and Food Security. Held in Cape Town 11-14 September 2018.
Measurement Tools and Models

Building for Birds
http://wec.ifas.ufl.edu/buildingforbirds/web/home.html
This online tool allows city decision makers to evaluate different development designs and their impact on forest bird habitat and one can download a species list of birds that use forest fragments and residential neighborhoods.

Capitales Françaises de la Biodiversité
http://www.capitale-biodiversite.fr/
Annual reporting and award system on biodiversity for French cities (in French).

Circles of Sustainability
http://www.circlesofsustainability.org/about/
by the Institute for Culture and Society at Western Sydney University

EKLIPSE
http://www.eklipse-mechanism.eu/apps/Eklipse_data/website/EKLIPSE_Report1-NBS_FINAL_Complete-08022017_LowRes_4Web.pdf
An impact evaluation framework to support planning and evaluation of nature-based solutions projects

GLOBIO
http://www.globio.info/
Tool that models human impact on biodiversity.

GRaBS (Green and Blue Space Adaptation for Urban Areas and Eco Towns) project
About GRaBS

Indicateurs Biodiversite Collectivites
http://www.observatoire-biodiversite-paca.org/environnement/biodiversite/indicateurs-de-biodiversite-pour-les-collectivites~206.html
See more in the comparison of frameworks and indices below.

Japanese City Biodiversity Index (JCBI)
http://www.mlit.go.jp/toshi/park/toshi_parkgreen_tk_000022.html
See more in the comparison of frameworks and indices below.

Mayor's Monarch Pledge
http://www.nwf.org/Garden-For-Wildlife/About/National-Initiatives/Mayors-Monarch-Pledge.aspx
North American (Mexico, Canada, and USA)

One Planet Living
http://www.bioregional.com/oneplanetliving/

Singapore Index
https://www.nparks.gov.sg/biodiversity/urban-biodiversity/the-singapore-index-on-cities-biodiversity
See more in the comparison of frameworks and indices below.

State of Environment Reporting: Guidelines for Municipalities
http://soer.deat.gov.za/dm_documents/DEAT_SoE_Guidelines_DMMb3_ptOmu.pdf
for South African local governments.

Step-by-Step Methodology to Reduce Biodiversity Losses
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/60na4_en.pdf
Proposes a socioeconomic pressure analysis to address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss.

Urban Sustainability Framework by the World Bank
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/339851517836894370/Urban-Sustainability-Framework-USF-first-edition
Features a guideline on preparing a sustainability plan and a measurement framework with indicators in four categories: (1) urban economies, (2) natural environment and resources, (3) climate action and resilience, and (4) inclusivity and quality of life.
Research Institutes

Designing green spaces for biodiversity and human wellbeing
https://urbangreenspace.info/
Partnership between the Australian government, several universities, the City of Melbourne, NGOs, and private firms.

EKLIPSE
http://www.eklipse-mechanism.eu/expert_working_group_on_nbs
EKLIPSE Expert Working Group on Nature‐based Solutions to Promote Climate Resilience in Urban Areas.

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)
https://www.ipbes.net/

South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI)
https://www.sanbi.org/

Stockholm Resilience Centre
http://www.stockholmresilience.org/

University of Copenhagen
Green Surge Handbook
Policy briefs, fact sheets and recommendations for practitioners on how urban green infrastructure contributes to sustainability by the University of Copenhagen
Guidelines, Toolkits, and Indices

Urban Biodiversity in General
BiodiverCities Methodology
by ICLEI Canada.
Biodiversity Assessment Handbook for New York City
by the American Museum of Natural History
Sustainable Sites Initiative:
Sustainable certification system for landscapes in the USA.
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for Local and Regional Policy

See more in the comparison of frameworks and indices below.

Specific Aspects of Urban Biodiversity
The Nature of Mainstreaming A Local Integrated Planning Toolkit for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
2014
URBIO Index
2008

Sustainability Indices that include biodiversity
Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System (STARS)

Scientific Reviews
Urban Nature Atlas: A Database of Nature-Based Solutions Across 100 European Cities 2018 https://naturvation.eu/sites/default/files/result/files/urban_nature_atlas_a_database_of_nature-based_solutions_across_100_european_cities.pdf
Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment 2013 http://bieb.ruaf.org/ruaf_bieb/upload/3791.pdf
Cities and Biodiversity Outlook 2012 http://cbobook.org/?r=1&width=1440
Biological Diversity and Cities: A Review and Bibliography 2009 in German and English. https://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/Skript245.pdf
Comparison of Frameworks and Indices
The Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB) Pioneer Programme is a five-step programme for local governments run by the ICLEI Cities Biodiversity Center. The LAB programme requires participants to prepare and politically commit to a biodiversity report and strategy and to implement three local biodiversity projects. UBHub supports ICLEI’s Programme on our site by including its five steps on myHUB for self-reporting purposes whether or not a city is officially a part of ICLEI’s program. ICLEI offers LAB Pioneers additional capacity-building support and networking in return for a fee as part of the Programme.
5 Steps:
1. Create and publish a biodiversity report.
2. Sign the Durban Commitment
3. Publish an LBSAP: Specify the overall strategy and related actions to fulfill the city's biodiversity goals and align with the national biodiversity plan.
4. Commit politically to the LBSAP
5. Implement three biodiversity projects: projects are broadly defined and can be new or pre-existing policies or on-the-ground actions.
Participation Requirements:
Program is no longer active. Voluntary participation and basic tools are free, but one-time membership fees are assessed to be part of the program. Intended as a one-time stepwise program.
Pros:
Participants and their plans are featured on ICLEI‘s website. Capacity-building support (webinars, etc.) provided by ICLEI.
Cons:
No differentiation between cities at the various stages of completion.

The Japanese City Biodiversity Index (JCBI) was published by the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. JCBI is a tool for local public authorities to realise and objectively evaluate their cities’ biodiversity, to facilitate better schemes and policy making regarding biodiversity. Applying the JCBI is a simple process of calculating 7 biodiversity indicators, requiring self-reviews and providing data online for all local public authorities.
「都市における生物多様性指標」 は、地方公共団体が都市の生物多様性の状況及びその確保に向けた取り組みの状況を客観的に把握・評価し、今後の施策や取組・普及の促進に活かせるよう、国土交通省が公表した生物多様性指標である。地方公共団体によって調査の実施状況や精度、データの収集・分析・評価が困難であることを踏まえ、2016年に簡易版が査定され、全国の地方公共団体が容易に入手できるデータ及びアンケートによる自己評価によって全7項目の指標値の算出ができるようになった。
Steps:
1. Access the JCBI pdf file that is available from Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 国土交通省のウェブサイトからJCBIのPDFファイルを入手
2. Follow the guideline and calculate each indicator (for indicators 1, 3 and 5, data is available from digital national land information.) PDFのガイドラインに沿って各指標を計算(指標1,3,5で使用するデータは 国土数値情報ダウンロードサービス にて入手可能)
Participation Requirements:
Tools freely available in Japanese and all required data would be easily accessible.「都市における生物多様性指標」は、地方公共団体が都市の生物多様性の状況及びその確保に向けた取り組
Pros:
Easy to access and to evaluate. 容易に評価ができる
Cons:
No monitoring by MLITT. Indicators might be too simple to evaluate accurately. 国土交通省によるモニタリングは無し 指標の簡易化による評価の正確性の欠如が懸念される

The Biophilic Cities Network aims to increase the connection between humans and nature in urban environments. They connect citizens and policy makers so they can share goals and best practices to bring nature explicitly into the planning and design of cities. To participate, a city must prepare a narrative statement describing their existing initiatives and future aspirations related to bringing nature into the city. Cities set their own indicators and benchmarks. The network publishes a monthly newsletter, hosts a bi-annual conference, and produces webinars throughout the year. They are also active on social media.
4 Steps:
1. Adopt a resolution to participate in the network which is approved by the local government.
2. Submit a narrative statement of current and planned activities.
3. Select and commit to monitoring 5 indicators, such as:
a. Natural infrastructure (canopy coverage, park access, green roofs, native habitat areas, new projects)
b. Public engagement (park visitation, resident knowledge, outdoor clubs)
c. Governance (budget allocation, planning documents, policies, public curricula, global assistance contributions)
4. Participate in network activities and designate an official coordinator/contact person.
Participation Requirements:
Tools are to be provided freely online. One-time membership fees of $250 USD are assessed.
Pros:
Partner Cities are featured on the Biophilic Cities webpage, with status up for review every 2 years. Shares best practices throughout the network. Includes webinars and newsletter.
Cons:
Newer system just launched in 2013.

The Singapore Index allows cities to assess and monitor the progress of their biodiversity conservation efforts against their own benchmarks. Its 23 indicators measure native biodiversity in the city, ecosystem services, and governance and management of biodiversity. Each indicator is assigned a score. Participating cities are required to conduct a baseline scoring when they begin using the Singapore Index. After that, cities are asked to conduct further scorings every three years.
Sections:
1. City Profile section specifies contextual elements of the city’s economic, demographic, geographic, and political conditions.
2. Native Biodiversity includes indicators for species assessments, natural areas, invasive assessments.
3. Ecosystem Services includes indicators for water cycle regulation, climate regulation, educational and recreational opportunities.
4. Governance and management includes indicators for budget allocation, projects, plans, interdepartmental cooperation, public participation, education programs, and outreach.
Participation Requirements:
Tools and participation are free but also not supported or monitored.

Intended as a quantifiable system to allow cities to compare against their own progress. 23 indicators are each worth up to 4 points and can be summed to provide a single numerical score.
Pros:
Provides a numerical result that can be used for target-setting, but not for comparison across cities.
Cons:
Best suited for cities with existing data. Questions for application can be submitted to Singapore, but there is no longer any dedicated program supporting the index specifically.

The Ecological Footprint is an ecological accounting method that indicates the amount of terrestrial and aquatic areas impacted by all activities of people in a given area. It requires the input of consumption data for all economic aspects, including land and buildings, transportation, food, waste production, etc. The output is in units of global hectares, which is a measure of productive land and sea area. This can then be compared with the biocapacity of the same area to determine whether the people in the area are living sustainably and to see which aspects of their lives have the greatest environmental impact.

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) made this guide to the Ecological Footprint for Local Governments.
As this is a calculation method rather than a system, there are no given steps for this method, however, there is an EcoCity Toolkit in pilot testing out of BCIT in Burnaby, BC, Canada, and the Ecological Footprint Network is also seeking ways to assist local governments.
Participation Requirements:
There is no widespread system for local-level support, so local governments often either adapt national calculations to local conditions or rely on academics to complete the analysis on their behalf.
Pros:
Quantifiable data provides results that can be compared across locations and over time. Useful for goal-setting.
Cons:
Requires a considerable amount of data collection and analysis.

The BiodiverCities Methodology is published by ICLEI Canada and Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. It is a companion document to the Urban Biodiversity Management Guidebook. A compilation which discusses why, who & how of integrating urban biodiversity to build resilient and sustainable communities. It puts forth best practices by discussing various successful examples and case studies which have shown positive results and have the potential to be replicated by the local governments and decision makers.
Steps:
1. Stakeholder analysis.
2. Research local geography and biodiversity.
3. Create a Biodiversity Conservation Plan that includes baseline data, budgeting, actions, roles and responsibilities, and monitoring indicators.
4. Implement the plan in partnership with the community and attain council approval.
5. Monitor/review the plan and update it.
Participation Requirements:
It is not a program, but an approach that calls for a cyclical, iterative approach to biodiversity planning. Thus, there are no barriers to using the approach outlined in the guide.
Pros:
Simple program with no required commitments or costs.
Cons:
No official membership recognition or tracking.

IUCN Biodiversity indicators for Local authorities Engaged in 2012, within the framework of the working group "Local authorities & Biodiversity " in the french context, this project aims to identify a common and synthetic set of biodiversity indicators adapted to subnational territorial scales, primarily regional, based mainly on the Singapore Index. Through this reference game, the regions will have a common self-assessment tool that will also allow them to report on their responses to the Aichi targets and the National Biodiversity Strategy.
UICN Indicateurs de Biodiversité pour les Collectivités Territoriales Engagé en 2012, dans le cadre du groupe de travail « Collectivités territoriales & Biodiversité » dans le contexte français, ce projet vise à identifier un jeu commun et synthétique d’indicateurs de biodiversité adaptés aux échelons territoriaux infranationaux, en premier lieu régional, en se basant essentiellement sur l’Indice de Singapour. Grâce à ce jeu de référence, les régions disposent d’un outil commun d’auto-évaluation leur permettant également de rendre compte de leurs réponses aux objectifs d’Aichi et de la Stratégie nationale pour la biodiversité.
Indicator Sections:
1. Pressures on biodiversity in the territory
2. State of biodiversity in the territory
3. Impacts of the evolution of biodiversity for actors in the territory
4. Reactions by actors in the territory to preserve biodiversity
Participation Requirements:
Unknown.
Pros:
Adapts the Singapore Index adn the Aichi Targets to produce a regional standard.
Cons:
Only in France. Does not provide a comparative score.

The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity (TEEB) for Local and Regional Policy Makers focuses on ecosystem services, such as clean air, healthy food, protection against floods, and pollination, just to name a few, which they further by guiding decision and policy making. They collect and provide information to stakeholders, focusing primarily on showing the economic advantages of investing in ecosystem services.
Steps:
1. Specify and agree on the policy issue with public and interdepartmental stakeholders.
2. Prioritize ecosystem services.
3. Define information needs and select methods, including cultural services, awareness, ecosystem monitoring, and payment schemes.
4. Assess ecosystem services via socio-ecological, economic, ecological, and/or developmental frameworks.
5. Identify and compare policy long-term impacts via participatory debate and cost-benefit analysis using multiple criteria.
6. Determine distributional impacts using tools such as poverty assessment and a Sustainable Livelihoods Approach to determine dependence.
Participation Requirements:
Tools are free. Focuses on livelihoods and economic benefits of biodiversity via ecosystem services. Provides a plethora of options from which cities can choose (less prescriptive than other programs).
Pros:
Good for entry-level or economically-focused local governments. Integration of economic tools eases integration and mainstreaming.
Cons:
There is no network or organizational support.

Biodiversity Sensitive Urban Design (BSUD) is a protocol for ecologically restorative suburban design that quantitatively measures impacts on biodiversity. It seeks to create suburban environments that provide net benefit through onsite restoration and conservation activities to native species and ecosystems. Their process entails identifying local ecological values, identifying and setting objectives, deciding upon actions, and quantifying the results.
6 Steps:
1. Map current and historical ecological properties.
2. Define ecological objectives.
3. Identify development objectives and requirements.
4. Identify actions that will meet the project’s objectives and consider the 5 BSUD principles:
a. Habitat creation/preservation for target species
b. Facilitation of species movement
c. Minimization of disturbance
d. Facilitate natural processes/functions
e. Facilitate community engagement in positive interactions with nature
5. Assess projected biodiversity impacts quantitatively.
6. Identify actions that best meet development and biodiversity objectives
Participation Requirements:
Tools freely available, but technical guides for quantitative assessment not found.
Pros:
Best suited for high capacity projects involving new development (particularly residential) on city edges.
Cons:
Institutional support unclear.


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